Il contadino e il lavoro dei campi (Italian Edition)

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Marcoul simply because the name of the saint happened to sound like the name that had been given already to the popular healers. In any case, by the 16th century, both the popular healers and the kings of France and England were conducting their healing ceremonies under the auspices of a particular Christian saint, although in England that saint was St. More specifically, the English kings were thought to have received this power because of their descent from Edward the Confessor, who, in turn, according to some legends, had received it from St.

Marcoul, the etymology of the term marcou can be subjected to a very different interpretation, as we shall see shortly. For now let it suffice to say that special healing powers were attributed to two different types of individuals: those who came to the profession because as their birthright as seventh-sons or daughters and then those who were said to have the same powers but only because they were transmitted through the royal lineage and reconfirmed through the intercession of a Christian saint.

With these facts in mind, the morphology and functions of the lower-class marcous are far more in keeping with those of the Basque, Catalan and Valencian seventh-son and daughter healers even though by the 19th century the duties assigned to the marcous appear to have been more limited and less structured. The points made in this section will serve to shed further light on the complexity of the problem under analysis. Specifically, it lays out additional lines of converging evidence for the explanatory model being proposed.

However, here we are talking about a dataset that has an additional characteristic, namely, linguistic clues that confer other characteristics to the same individual. The meanings of the terms are essentially identical to those of the Sardu words mommoi, mommai , marragoi and marragau.

As long as the term was known only orally, there was a certain level of uncertainty as to how it was supposed to be pronounced and even more so in terms of how it was to be written down. Over time, a written canonical form would emerge and be agreed upon, that is, marcou , the one regularly used in textual references to describe this seventh-born sorcerer. Il est donc contemporain de cauchemar xv e s.

The set of meanings contained in it organize themselves around concepts we have seen before in the case of the Sardu terms: shaman-healer, sorcerer, bogey-man, night-mare. He then argues for a semantic pathway constituted by a sequence involving the following two cognitive steps: 1 the sounds made by a tom-cat became a way of naming the animal that emitted them, then; 2 since cats were viewed as familiars of witches and used in rituals, the name of the familiar was transferred to the witch or sorcerer.

The principal characters of the plays, presented in a wide variety of manner and style, are a Hero, his chief opponent, the Fool and a Quack Doctor. As mentioned earlier, a defining feature of mumming plays is the Doctor, and the main purpose of the fight is to provide him with a patient to cure. The hero sometimes kills and sometimes is killed by his opponent; in either case, the Doctor comes to restore the dead man to life. The reenactments are found throughout much of England, Scotland and Wales.

1. La introduzione descrive il passaggio dall'inverno alla primavera

His principal opponents are the Turkish Knight in southern England , or a valiant soldier named Slasher elsewhere. George St. George, against his pagan enemy, e. What remains central to all the plays is the death and resurrection theme. So a doctor always appears, Saint George is usually present, as is his nemesis, the Turkish Knight or the dragon.

BBC, [n. Indeed it would not be out of place to call them Quack Doctor plays to distinguish them from other English folk plays […]. There were earlier quack doctors in plays, the Doctor having been a stock character in stage drama for a long time. For example, there is not a hint of the respect that was paid to the popular healers of times past, the seventh-sons and daughters that we have discussed. In this way the figure of the Quack Doctor has survived and continues to be an integral part of these highly abbreviated yet ritualized performances in which his miraculous powers, albeit comedic ones, are highlighted and used to bring the dead back to life.

In other locations, in representations of the scene of the Death and Resurrection of the Bear, the shaman-healer and the Bear have disappeared entirely from the stage. The scene has been restructured so that the audience witnesses a fight between two historically situated and fully anthropomorphic characters with recognizable names whose identities are, therefore, no longer ambiguous e.

George to the members of the audience. That encounter in turn produces the death of one of the actors which in turn justifies the intervention of the Quack Doctor who revives the victim. Whereas the outer trappings of the scene have changed, the basic script has remained the same: one of the characters falls down, dies and is attended to by a healer who miraculously brings him back to life. Indeed, according to Millington, this scene is not peripheral to the dramatic actions carried out during the performances, but rather a fundamentally essential component of them Millington, As was discussed in Frank c , one of the central scenes in the Good-Luck Visits has been the scene of the Death and Resurrection of the Bear.

CONTADINI

In the case of the Sardinian performances, similar terms have been employed to describe this aspect of the performance piece Fois, a. In the picture fig. However, he does not intervene to revive the Bear. In contrast, in Mamoiade the bear mask itself had disappeared by the end of the19th century. Source: Fois a.

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In the case of the performance of the Mamutzones of Samugheo there is no longer any Quack Doctor among the members of the cast. Yet the Bear and the scene of Death before Resurrection continue to be an integral part of the play. In reference to this scene and the visual narrative embedded in it, Fois obtained this report from an elderly gentleman from Samugheo, referring to the period just after World War II.

Then the others gathered around the animal, that is, there were four or five domadores who spoke about who had killed the Bear, who was responsible for its death. And everyone pointed the blame at someone else Fois, a. Source: Lajoux , p. Lajoux, , p. In this instance, after the Bear is killed, the Quack Doctor comes to revive him, but is unsuccessful and it is the Bear Leader who brings the creature back to life, by blowing into his anus, using his long staff as if it were a chalumeau , a kind of counterpart of a bellows.

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Gianni Berengo Gardin bibliography

The slight discrepancy in the distribution of roles is probably explained by the fact that previously the Bear Leader was the actor in charge of resurrecting the animal: his role was still shamanic and therefore it included him being assigned the role of healer. Over time recognition of the shamanic nature of this character was lost, and this aspect of the his role was taken over by a Quack Doctor who arrived with his portmanteaux filled with special instruments and set about bringing the deceased Bear back to life. But in addition he is outfitted with a large wooden phallus and matching pair of wooden testicles, not exactly what one would expect a member of the medical profession to be wearing in the 20th century, much less displaying in front of the public Dendaletche, , pp.

Chronologically speaking, this combination of accessories evokes two different interpretative frames, one more archaic than the other, one more in accordance with modern sensibilities and the other less so. They both walked upright; the foot print left by a bear was much like that left by a bare-foot human, albeit much larger; they ate the same things, craved honey, sought out the same luscious berry patches and fruit trees. Salmon and even trout fishing were passions held in common Shepard, And the same was true of the young cubs who during their first two or three years of life would den with their mother while there was no concern on her part with laying up a supply of winter food for them or herself.

In short, humans would have noticed that bears never bothered to fill their pantry for winter as chipmunks, ground squirrels and some other hibernating mammals seem to do The latter is usually found near the entrance of the den or nearby. Shortly after awakening the creature voids this anal plug, an act accompanied by a prolonged and odoriferous bear fart. Attention must have been paid by hunters to this bear fart for it signaled that the bear was waking up: sluggishly coming back to life. It indicated both a juncture in time when the bear was more vulnerable to hunters and at the same time, a signal that Spring was on its way.

However, it does appear to have something to do with archaic beliefs concerning the bear fart which occurs just as the animal awakens from its long winter sleep. Because of the animistic cosmology of times past, this action appears to have been linked symbolically to the releasing of the souls of plants and animals: fecundating nature.

Hence, involuntary emissions of air, such as sneezing, were considered dangerous and verbal ritual protection was required when they took place. Today the reasons why bears neither urinate nor defecate are understood, although they still do not cease to amaze 21st century researchers. But there is more to this story because in the Pyrenees popular tradition also holds that the when the bear goes into hibernation it takes up the souls of all creatures into its belly.

In the spring, these souls are released. Concretely, they state that:.

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Gaignebet - Florentin, , pp. Gaignebet - Florentin, , p. This in turn enlivens the body of the animal at this juncture in the performance. In this case, it would be the Bear Leader shaman doctor who expels the fart into the body of the other, re-awakening in this way the bear character who then jumps up, alive and healthy once more.

Moreover, when this scene was reenacted during Carnival, we might assume that the audience would have identified in it the theme of Death and Resurrection. As can be seen, in some instances there appears to have been an effort to make explicit to the audience the cause of death:. In una mascherata calabrese della fine del secolo scorso, il poveretto moriva prima che i due chirughi, armati di spiedo, padella e altri arnesi da cucina e da macello, potessero mettergli le mani addosso. Bertolotti, , pp.

According to Bertolotti, there are three characters who can play the role of the deceased: a bear, a stuffed figure or a gypsy woman:. In this respect the role played by the Bear in Sardinian performance art is quite significant, as documented by Moretti in the s and further elaborated upon by Bertolotti in his remarkable study of the Italian Carnival Bertolotti, ; Moretti, , Moreover, in the next section, the survival of the Bear in Sardinian ritual performances will become a significant piece of ethnographic evidence as we move forward in search of the etymology of Maramao.

The deductive logic he employs in reaching this conclusion is based on the assumption that the association between cats and witchcraft — their role as familiars — or their use in other pagan rituals was what established the semantic linkage. While examining these linguistic examples, we need to keep in mind the dialectal variants found in Sardu, mentioned earlier in section 3. At the same time, as discussed previously, in Sardu we find three stem types in mamu-, momo- and marra- which carry similar meanings alongside Sardinian terms such as mamuttone and mamutzone which today refer to a specific set of masked performers connected to Carnival.

These include the following: mamu, mahu, mahumahu, mahuma and inguma. In Basque it is also known by the far less phonologically eroded compound expression hamalau-zango hamalau-zaingo which still reveals the original shape of the etymon hamalau Frank, a, pp. In comparing these and other examples, one needs to keep in mind that the lexical representations of words — their spellings — are always approximations of what the speaker has heard, not exact phonetic transcriptions of the sounds themselves.

On the other hand, I would argue that the two sets of meanings attached today to the word maramao have totally separate origins and that the resulting semantic confusion is nothing more than the consequence of a fortuitous phonological convergence and the resultant semantic bleaching of the original meaning of maramao , i.

However, while the marragau and mommoti continue to be scary, they are quite undefined, rather amorphous creatures that over time did not fully morph into cats. The Gatto Mammone was described to me recently as. On the other hand, in Sardinia, specifically in Ogliastra, we find another cat-like creature called Maimone, rather than Mammone, who does. Represented as a fantoccio di stracci, topped off with a cat-like head, Maimone is said to be the personification of Carnival.

When a drought would occur, the elderly women of the town would implore the children to carry out a particular ritual which had them going about the village, door to door, carrying an image of Maimone. Stopping at each house, the children would sing a song, a kind of prayer, an invocation directed to Maimone whose intervention was being solicited to bring down rain.

While Paulis records several variants of the song, there are two that stand out. In the first, the Christian deity is not mentioned and it is only Maimone who is supplicated and praised, whereas in the second variant, we find two different figures being petitioned simultaneously:. Paulis, , pp. Moretti describes the creature and its activities on this day as follows:. Moretti, In describing the performance in Gairo, celebrated in , Moretti adds these comments:. Could these feline features derive from a name that sounded to speakers like the meowing of a cat but that was at the same time was viewed by members of the same community of speakers as the personification of Carnival and identified with the effigy that they carried about?

An otherwise opaque expression similar to Maramao whose original meaning had been lost? In her work Canobbio , pp. This approach takes us back in time and opens up the possibility of recuperating the tenets of a much earlier cosmology typical of hunters and gatherers, more concretely, speakers who held that humans descended from bears.