Nuclear Fallout from the Nevada Test Site 1951-1970 in New Hampshire

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This growth meant strengthening its industry alliances, merging with other companies, developing new technologies and diversifying its holdings. Both companies weathered the breakup well. Provisions of the dissolution agreement assigned marketing for New York state and New England to Standard Oil Company of New York Socony and allowed Socony to maintain its extensive overseas operations.

The companies' first major expansion was in the southwest. With oil discovered in Corsicana, Texas, as early as , this was a logical region for exploration. Texas-based Magnolia Petroleum Company experienced rapid growth during the s and quickly caught Socony's attention, resulting in substantial stock acquisitions.

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By , Magnolia's stock was exchanged for Socony stock, and Socony's Texas properties were transferred to the newly incorporated Magnolia. The Standard Oil Company of Ohio had acquired majority interest in Vacuum Oil in , and it was yet another strong company to emerge from the breakup. Organized in , Vacuum Oil produced the first petroleum-based lubricants for horse-drawn carriages and, later, for steam engines. As the merger provided increased stability in the domestic market, Socony-Vacuum set its sights on its foreign resources and joined with Standard Oil New Jersey to form the Standard-Vacuum Oil Company, or Stanvac, in Standard Oil continued to build its interest in Humble throughout the first half of the century.

The next year Standard Oil and Humble consolidated their U.

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During World War II, major oil companies stepped up production and refining to support the war effort. Unfortunately, both companies experienced casualties as facilities and tankers were destroyed in the European and Pacific theaters. When the war ended, the companies looked toward rebuilding and again expanding their markets. A decade later, with increased brand recognition for Mobil products, Socony Mobil opted to once again change its name, this time becoming simply the Mobil Oil Corporation. Standard Oil established itself as a global chemical producer in , following the formation of Mobil Chemical Company in The s proved to be a period of great change for both companies.

Standard Oil started the decade contemplating its corporate identity. Throughout Standard's partnership with Humble, they marketed products under various names, using Esso the phonetic spelling of the abbreviation "S. The existence of other "Standard Oils" around the country — California, Indiana, Ohio, to name a few — made it necessary to use these different brand names in different regions.

Outside the U. A big challenge to the oil industry came in with the Arab oil embargo, with countries disrupting production, causing oil supplies to diminish and prices to soar. This event forced Exxon and Mobil to increase exploration and production in other parts of the world, including the North Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, Africa and Asia.

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As a result of the energy crisis, Mobil began seriously diversifying its holdings, acquiring Marcor, the parent company of retailer Montgomery Ward and Container Corporation of America, producer of paperboard packaging. Later, in , Mobil Corporation formed as a holding company for Marcor and Mobil Oil Corporation, which included the company's oil and gas operations and Mobil Chemical Company. The s and s marked a period of relative prosperity for Exxon and Mobil, with increased oil supplies and reduced prices. This period also saw the introduction of new marketing techniques, such as Exxon's Tiger Market convenience stores and Mobil's Speedpass technology.

By , Exxon and Mobil were poised to merge and become the world's largest energy corporation. Foundation and governance documents, legal agreements, correspondence and memoranda, publications, financial reports, press releases, speeches, news clippings, histories, advertising and graphics material, posters, ledgers and record books, drawings and blueprints, photographs, moving images, sound recordings, and artifacts and memorabilia document the activities and functions of four major corporate entities - Standard Oil Company, Mobil Corporation, Exxon Corporation and Exxon Mobil Corporation - and their predecessors and subsidiaries , bulk ss.

The ExxonMobil Historical Collection is an artificial collection amassed primarily from the records of various corporate divisions and subsidiaries; corporate archivists collected additional material from retirees and collectors. The bulk of the collection documents the Mobil Corporation and was assembled as a function of its corporate archives prior to the merger. Though Mobil established a dedicated archival program only as recently as , Mobil maintained an "historical file" collection in its public affairs department in the early s as a way of maintaining this material.

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  • The merger in resulted in both corporations combining their historical resources. The collection originally served the corporation as a resource to fulfill business needs. As a result, it is an incomplete record. The collection succeeds, however, in providing insight into the early activities of the Standard Oil Company and charting the growth of Exxon and Mobil's core business activities, namely the exploration, production, refining and marketing of petroleum products, and the industry's development and societal impact throughout the 20th century.

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    In addition, the collection contains diverse material that can support research on related topics such as advertising and brand identity, management and corporate culture, the environment, architecture, graphic design, and philanthropy. A portion of this collection is stored remotely. Advance notice is required for retrieval. Publication restrictions apply.

    The Exxon Mobil Corporation retains copyright to the collection. Please contact the Center's ExxonMobil Archivist for details. Photographs, artifacts, and multimedia materials have been separated and are cataloged separately.

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    Some books were separated to the library unit. This finding aid was combined into a single document in April It was originally divided into 9 parts. Repository Browse List. Accessing Materials Described Here. ExxonMobil Historical Collection, Photographs, multimedia, and artifacts are cataloged separately. Series I. Founding and governance documents This series contains charters, legal opinions, agreements and other documents detailing the formation and growth of the Standard Oil Company and the Standard Oil Trust.

    Dodd's legal opinions on the feasibility of creating the Trust and an abstract of the Trust agreement. This series includes agreements, bills of sale and other material documenting the Standard Oil Company's, the Standard Oil Trust's and their affiliates' acquisition of refineries, land, stock and property from companies in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and other states. Also included are Standard Oil and its subsidiaries' agreements forming exclusive relationships with pipeline and refining companies.

    This series contains statistics, inventories, ledgers, correspondence and product information documenting various aspects of the company's operations, notably its refineries and pipelines. Of particular interest is the "Eleventh Census of the United States Statistics of Manufactures" that includes production, labor and tax data for the company.

    Lists and abstracts of industry competitors are also included. In addition, the General Cipher code manual illustrates the lengths Standard Oil representatives were required to go to protect proprietary information. Libby, offers insight into the Japanese petroleum market. Articles of Incorporation, Minutes, balance sheets and investments This series consists of nine letters that John D. Rockefeller wrote to Standard Oil president Henry C. Folger, Jr. Most of the letters are brief and refer to previous communications, though of note is a longer letter of May 3 that reflects part of Rockefeller's business philosophy as he expressed hopes for permanent success by giving the public the best quality goods at the most reasonable prices.

    He wrote that he would rather make a lower profit on his investment than have competitors take their customers. This series traces the ownership of the primary and adjacent properties It is comprised of deeds, titles, wills, agreements, legal opinions, land surveys, a tax history search, and utility bills connected with 26 Broadway. An abstract of the title outlines the history of the Broadway property. This series includes articles of association, correspondence, minutes, resolutions and ledger sheets for the Petroleum Refiners' Association, headed by John D.

    These materials document the organization's efforts to unite refiners by forming districts in Cleveland, the Oil Regions [Pennsylvania], Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and New York, and to stabilize the market for refined products through alliances with the Petroleum Producers' Union. Of interest are crude oil allotments for each district from August to April Also included is some brief correspondence between John D. This series is comprised of two versions of the unpublished History of Standard Oil and circa by W.

    Taylor, an extensive history of the organization, and a brief homage to the company by Elbert Hubbard. Subject Files The most thoroughly documented aspects of the corporation are its marketing activities, particularly advertising and service station operations, and corporate administration and public affairs. Descriptions for each subject further delineate this series. Due to the artificial nature of the collection, files often do not reflect the context in which the records were created and used.

    In addition, some files may contain "cross reference" sheets created by a former corporate archivist. References to articles in various serial publications, found in Series II. Publications, appear to be the most accurate. Affiliates, Subsidiaries and Other Companies These sub-series contain materials created by or related to subsidiaries, divisions, and other companies with which the Mobil Corporation and its predecessors conducted business.

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    Correspondence, litigation documents, press releases, news clippings, publications, ledgers, logbooks, directories, and other records document the activities of these entities. This sub-series contains documents concerning the Mobil Corporation and its predecessors' aviation division, notably Global Aircraft Services. Included are articles from corporate publications The Socony-Vacuum News , Magnolia News , and Mobil World and information regarding the purchase of company aircraft, pilot sales representatives and the introduction of the Autogiro, an airplane-helicopter hybrid.

    In addition, On the Wing , a presumably unpublished manuscript, chronicles Mobil's aviation activities.