Zambies: Archebacteria

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Some things that popular culture treats as if they were alive, are in fact not alive. For example, consider viruses. WE hear people talk about killing a virus, which indicates an implication that the virus is alive how do you kill something that is not alive, kind of like a horror movie with zombies…. Recent studies suggest that there might be a sixth Kingdom, the Archaea. However, in a new level was proposed, the Domain. Woese argued that, on the basis of differences in genes that code for a part of the ribosomal RNA, these two groups and the eukaryotes each arose separately from a common ancestor that had poorly developed genetic machinery.

He treated each as a domain, divided into several different kingdoms. Biologists have also classified broader groups of life forms into superkingdoms that are known as domains. There are three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. On the drawing above, we can treat each branch of the tree as a Domain there are three main ones and each sub-branch as a kingdom.

Bacteria is the oldest domain and contains all true bacteria termed Eubacteria. Further studies suggest that Protista long recognized as not being monophyletic should be subdivided further to establish monophyletic kingdoms, as has been done over the past ten years. Studies of the Archaea revealed how unusual they are in the composition of their cell membrane and flagella structure. Achaean mechanisms for replication and transcription quite strongly resemble those found in eukaryotes.

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The archaeans make a number of DNA-binding proteins similar to eukaryotic histones. The archaeal ribosome is shaped differently, and the RNA polymerases are more complex than those of bacteria. The cell is the basic unit of life, and there are two basic types of cells. Eukaryotic cells have nuclei and membrane bound organelles, while prokaryotic cells do not.

Prokaryotes are believed to have evolved much earlier than eukaryotes, and exist in much greater numbers and in far more places. However, they are much simpler than eukaryotes and only exist as single cell organisms. As both the most abundant forms of life on Earth and probably the most commonly known prokaryotes, bacteria were long believed to be the only prokaryote. However, since , scientists have known about archaea.

6 Kingdoms

Domain Archaea was added as the third domain because they have several physical differences from bacteria and seem closer on the evolutionary ladder to eukaryotes than to bacteria. Learning: In this CoursePic, we'll look at a Prokaryote represented by Pro-karate - coyote , a Go-Pro sporting uniformed practitioner of the k-9 martial art, Coyote Karate. Since prokaryotes are a type of cell, Pro-karate-coyote is locked in a cell. Story: Pro-karate-coyote got all worked up at the nuclear power protest.

Things got out of hand, and he ended up arrested and locked in a cell. Enraged by the situation, Pro-karate-coyote works out his anger by running through his training exercises. Learning: Prokaryotes are capsule shaped cells, so Pro-karate-coyote's body also has a capsule shape. Story: Pro-karate-coyote's body has been sculpted into the perfect capsule shape by years of constant training.

Learning: Prokaryotic cells store their genetic material in rings of DNA. Pro-karate-coyote shows off his DNA-ring on his karate uniform. Story: The DNA-ring is a badge of honor only the best of the best have earned. When displayed on a karate uniform, the DNA-ring is the sign of a true pro-karate-coyote.

Animal and Human Health Impacts

Represented here by the flag-tail s, flagella are used for cell mobility. Pro-karate-coyote 's flag-tails show that he has mastered both the Splat-fearsome and the Blue-green-schools , representing bacterium and blue-green algae respectively. Story: Each pro-karate-coyote practices a specific school of Coyote Karate.

This one proudly displays the flag-tails for both the Splat-fearsome and Blue-green-schools , showing that he has mastered both disciplines. Learning: As the oldest type of living cell, prokaryotes have been around since before the evolution of the nucleus and most organelles. Some prokaryotes, like blue-green algae, are photosynthetic.


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Through the process of photosynthesis, they use the energy of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen. To show this, Pro-karate-coyote detests anything nuclear.

Archaea Microbes, ‘Life’s Extremists,’ May Hold Potential As New Antibacterial Drugs

Marine viruses can be both detrimental and beneficial to the ocean's health. Some viruses attack and kill plankton, eliminating the base of the ocean food chain in a particular area. At the same time, this dead plankton can become a source of carbon that is not otherwise readily available to other sea life. Scientists estimate that up to 25 percent of all living carbon in the oceans is made available through the action of viruses. When these aspects remain in proper balance, the ocean functions normally.

Bacteria are single-celled organisms without cell nuclei. They are found in all portions of the water column, the sediment surface, and the sediments themselves. Some are aerobic requiring oxygen , whereas others are anaerobic not requiring oxygen. Most bacteria are free-living, but some live as partners symbionts within other organisms.

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For instance, many deep-sea fish harbor symbiotic bacteria that emit light, which the fish use to signal other members of their species. The bacteria's ability to emit light is called bioluminescence. Bioluminescence causes water to glow, a phenomenon most noticeable at the surface but present at all depths.

Cyanobacteria, a type of bacteria, played an important role in the history of Earth and in ocean processes, including the development of stromatolites see photograph on page Living in colonies, the cyanobacteria produced oxygen during the process of photosynthesis, which generated the oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere that many living beings require today. Although cyanobacteria also are called "blue-green algae," it is important to remember that cyanobacteria are relatives of bacteria and not algae.

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They are, however, related to the chloroplasts within algae; the chloroplasts used by some plants to produce food are actually cyanobacteria living within plants' cell walls. Stromatolites are layered, mushroom-shaped structures formed by lime secreted by cyanobacteria. Fossilized stromatolites have provided scientists with critical information about the earliest development of life on Earth.

Living stromatolites are among the unique forms of life in the ocean. Some marine bacteria can interact with diatoms, another type of marine microbe, in such a way that influences the cycling of silicon in the ocean. Diatoms, a group of unicellular algae, are characterized by their highly ornate two-part shell-like structures made from silica. One species of bacteria, Thiomargarita namibiensis, plays a critical role in hydrogen sulfide eruptions from diatomaceous sediments off Africa's Namibia coast.

hukusyuu-mobile.com/wp-content/facebook/3429-top-cellphone-locate.php Known as the "sulfur pearl of Namibia," this anaerobic species digests organic matter under low-oxygen or no-oxygen conditions that are caused by high rates of phytoplankton growth in the Benguela upwelling zone, and the subsequent decay of large masses of dead phytoplankton that have fallen to the seafloor. The anaerobic activity leads to the formation of hydrogen sulfide gas H 2 S in the sediment.

Over time, the gases build up and are periodically released into the water column in a "sulfide eruption. These surface features can be observed by satellites see photograph on page Knowledge of the diversity of microbial life in the oceans continues to grow. Until the s, knowledge of microbial populations was determined using assays that relied on the growth of the microbe. Now, detection and identification of microbes are possible by the examination of their genetic material. These molecular assay techniques have revealed much larger numbers and types of microbes in the ocean than scientists previously suspected.

The bacteria-like microbes known as Archaea represent one example of research surprising to marine microbiologists.


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  • Archaea are one of the major domains of life on Earth. Since their discovery in , these microorganisms have been found in many extreme environments on Earth, including hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. Recently, scientists determined that Archaea also exist in the open sea. Moreover, these microbes may comprise up to half the mass of life in the oceans, and so must play an important role in the processes that occur in the oceans.

    Once thought to be a periodic phytoplankton bloom, the highly visible occurrence shown here as wispy areas near the coast is now known to be the result of periodic hydrogen sulfide gas eruptions from the diatomaceous sediments underlying the highly productive waters of the northern Benguela upwelling zone. Anaerobic microbial breakdown of decaying phytoplankton produces hydrogen sulfide gas in the seafloor sediment, and the gas buildup is periodically released, rising and oxidizing as it approaches the water surface.